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hassouka

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  1. How to Catch Ratio Cheaters! Most (but not all) leechers are just cads who choke their uploads. uTorrent is set up to handle them pretty easily during regular seeding or trading, but, if in initial-seeding mode, is exploited by disconnect/reconnect-abusing clients (BitComet, et al). This can add hours if not days to the duration of an initial-seed. Advice for catching initial-seed leeches: Code: * keep an eye on the Peers tab's "Peer dl" column. * keep an eye on the Peers tab's "Uploaded" column. * keep an eye on any peer using a client whose name starts with "B". -- A peer with no number listed in the Peer dl column is likely either completely throttling his uploads, or port-blocked on a "dead-end" node, or is only interested in downloading one file and is just waiting for you to start sending . Such a peer is a less-optimal initial-seeding participant. -- If your torrent has been initially-seeding for awhile, and some peers have only one piece sent to them in the upload column, then you know their uploads are choked. If you have to stop and start your torrent frequently, such peers will be getting extra blocks each time (and probably not retrading them). -- If you see a peer continually drop out and reconnect to grab a fresh piece of your initially-seeding torrent, and the "availability" percentage jumps up when they appear and drops when they disappear -- that peer is a leech who's robbing you blind. He's similar to the person described above, but has an "abusive" client. You can save the IPs of these peers in the Logging tab, then manually enter them in IP-blocking software. (I usually have several categories that I toss these guys into, some perm, some temp.) My best advice for dealing with leeches is to create torrents with smaller piece sizes. Since most users must configure their clients with a limited number of connections, it will be the preference of the client to drop slower connections for faster ones. This means that a leech with a 4meg piece being released at 1k/sec to six different peers will be constantly dropped by external peers since virtually anyone else will be sending data faster than 0.125k/sec. Clients tend not to prioritize fragmented pieces unless they are ultra-ultra rare (i.e., a torrent in which initial-seeding has been halted until only fragmented pieces remain unshared). Sometimes, regretably, you have to be a total a-hole in order to shape people up. For example, I have a multi-file torrent recently where a large percentage of the peers were only interested in some of the material. I had difficultly starting the torrent because a lot of people didn't want the first file, and the few who did were slow. So I used regular seeding up to about 10%, then switched over. When the torrent was about 50% completed, I noticed that one leech was still hanging onto about 5% of the torrent. By the time the torrent was at 85%, he still had 4.7% of 6+ gigs of material. This made me very angry, and I "paused" the torrent for a three-day week-end. Either he released his stuff, or it would soon become obvious to scores of people in the torrent who he was, and they would ALL block him permanently. IMO, dealing with disconnect/reconnect-abusing clients during initial-seeding mode should be a primary focus of forth-coming versions of uTorrent. I think it is imperative that piece re-trading records be maintained across reconnection attempts, and even quit/re-open cycles of uTorrent, until the torrent is fully-seeded.
  2. Seedbox A seedbox is a private dedicated webserver used for the uploading and downloading of digital files. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seedbox proper A tag used to suggest that the release is genuine or of greater quality/completeness than any previous releases of the same works. swf SWF is a proprietary vector graphics file format produced by the Flash software from Adobe (formerly Macromedia). Intended to be small enough for publication on the web, SWF files can contain animations or applets of varying degrees of interactivity and function. SWF is also sometimes used for creating animated display graphics and menus for DVD movies, and television commercials. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swf fills Usenet: reposted parts or files, uploaded after the original posting, to fill in a missing portion of a post. SSL Secure Sockets Layer - a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data - a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers.By convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http: More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secure_Sockets_Layer zix An allegedly compressed archive which is regarded as an adware/spyware/trojan scam by many More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winzix CBR CBR is a type of audio file encoding. In CBR (Constant Bitrate) encoding, the bitrate is kept constant across the entire file: the same number of bits is allocated to encode each second of audio, and internally, frames of audio data occur at regular, predictable intervals, so the overall file size for a given duration of audio is predictable. CBR is therefore the "opposite" of VBR. More Info : http://wiki.hydrogenaudio.org/index.php?title=CBR .uha UHarc Compressed archive file Alliance Alliance is an open source p2p program and works on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. The Alliance network is completely decentralized. C&D a Cease and Desist letter. This is typically sent by a copyright holder, or an agent of a copyright holder, to an ISP, requesting they forward it to a customer who they say is distributing their material without authorization. It asks the customer to stop distributing the material in question. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cease_and_desist .m4a Files in .M4A format are actually the audio layer of (non-video) MPEG 4 movies. M4A is slated to become the new standard for audio file compression. This format is also known as Apple Lossless, Apple Lossless Encoder, or ALE. It is a new codec designed to provide lossless encoding in less storage space. cvs CVS (Concurrent Versions System) is a version control system, an important component of Source Configuration Management (SCM). Using it, you can record the history of sources files, and documents. It fills a similar role to the free software RCS, PRCS, and Aegis packages. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concurrent_Versions_System eBook An eBook is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EBook VoIP VoIP ( Voice over IP) telephony: a way of sending voice calls over the Internet using either a software or a hardware telephone. ics Internet Connection Sharing (ICS), is the name given by Microsoft to a method of sharing the internet connection available on one machine with one or more other machines, via a network connection. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interne...ection_Sharing DarkNet The darknet is not a separate physical network but an application and protocol layer riding on existing networks. Examples of darknets are peer-to-peer file sharing, CD and DVD copying, and key or password sharing on email and newsgroups IPsec Short for IP Security, a set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel. Transport mode encrypts only the data portion (payload) of each packet, but leaves the header untouched. The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet. For IPsec to work, the sending and receiving devices must share a public key. This is accomplished through a protocol known as Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol/Oakley (ISAKMP/Oakley), which allows the receiver to obtain a public key and authenticate the sender using digital certificates. OpenFT OpenFT is a file sharing protocol developed by the giFT project. The name "OpenFT" stands for "Open FastTrack". Despite this, the OpenFT protocol is an entirely new protocol design: only a few ideas in the OpenFT protocol are drawn from what little was known about the FastTrack protocol at the time OpenFT was designed. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenFT#OpenFT_protocol roms ROM images (or ROMs, for short) is used in the context of emulation for a binary file which contains graphics, sounds, and program code. ROM images are usually created so that the software can be run on computer hardware different from the one the software was originally designed for, using emulator software More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROM_image NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) allows a single device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (or "public network") and a local (or "private") network. This means that only a single, unique IP address is required to represent an entire group of computers. wmp Windows Media Player mute An anonymous file-sharing network: "MUTE protects your privacy by avoiding direct connections with your sharing partners in the network. Most other file sharing programs use direct connections to download or upload, making your identity available to spies from the RIAA and other unscrupulous organizations." DHT Distributed hash tables (DHTs) are a class of decentralized, distributed systems and algorithms being developed to provide a scalable, self-configuring infrastructure with a clean programming interface. This infrastructure can then be used to support more complex services. DHTs can be used to store data, as well as route and disseminate information. DHTs are named after hash tables because they assign responsibility for a piece of data based on a hash function (often SHA-1); each node acts like a bucket in a hash table. A DHT provides an efficient lookup algorithm (or network routing method) that allows one participating node to quickly determine which other machine is responsible for a given piece of data. More Info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_hash_table Blog Short for "weB LOG"; blogs are online journals or articles on just about any subject or topic. Many consider blogs pillars of the first amendment, since anyone can start writing a blog from the facets of free avenues that makes blogging openly available. bloatware The term bloatware refers to a piece of software so bogged down with other third party software that its size becomes bloated. i.e., "That Grokster P2P program has so much spyware, its bloatware!" 1337 Referrers to a "leet" or an "elite" class of netizens; it is a name associated with pompous individuals who believe feudalism is alive and well on the Internet. dmg A CD image file, like the popular ISO format, but largely intended for Apple Mac computers. mkv A file with the extension ".mkv" is a Matroska Video File. MKV is the newest container format like AVI and OGM. DHCP The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an Internet protocol for automating the configuration of computers that use TCP/IP. DHCP can be used to automatically assign IP addresses, to deliver TCP/IP stack configuration parameters such as the subnet mask and default router, and to provide other configuration information such as the addresses for printer, time and news servers. PPPoE Acronym for Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. PPPoE relies on two widely accepted standards: PPP and Ethernet. PPPoE is a specification for connecting the users on an Ethernet to the Internet through a common broadband medium, such as a single DSL line, wireless device or cable modem. All the users over the Ethernet share a common connection, so the Ethernet principles supporting multiple users in a LAN combine with the principles of PPP, which apply to serial connections. JXTA Introduced by Sun Microsystems, Inc., the award winning JXTA technology is a set of open, generalized peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) on the network to communicate and collaborate. Project JXTA is an open source effort that involved the developer community from the start. JXTA technology enables developers to create innovative distributed services and applications. JXTA technology is used to create applications and services that enable people to: * Collaborate on projects from anywhere using any connected device * Share compute services, such as processor cycles or storage systems, regardless of where the systems or the users are physically located * Communicate with colleagues across the world using a peer-to-peer network * Share files and information to distributed locations on the network, not just to local hard drives * Connect game systems so that multiple people in multiple locations can play the same game interactively ISP Internet Service Provider kzhash An identifier for files on the FastTrack network, introduced for use with Kazaa ver 2.6 and later, as an improvement on 'sig2dat'. tracker A tracker is similar to a traffic cop. It keeps track of all the files that are uploaded to it, and directs all the various traffic to where it needs to go. It also is a great way to check out the status of various torrents, as most sites trackers contain information about each torrent files number of complete seeders versus, the number of leechers. upnp UPnP architecture offers pervasive peer-to-peer network connectivity of PCs of all form factors, intelligent appliances, and wireless devices. UPnPIP and the Web to enable seamless proximity networking in addition to control and data transfer among networked devices in the home, office, and everywhere in between. UPnP newsparrot Newsparrot is a newsreader, designed to explore the thousands of open newsservers on Usenet for newsgroups of interest. This newsreader also includes options for finding more newsservers by examining message headers, or by importing the newsservers from websites on the web. hypertorrent Hypertorrent is a BitTorrent search engine that index’s and categorizes links to BitTorrent files from the web. Exeem Exeem is a decentralized BitTorrent network currently being developed by SuprNova. The project is being kept under a veil of secrecy, therefore little is known about the network or program. aimini A pay P2P client. B2B Business to Business (B2B) trade is a potentially huge use of the Internet. The initial solutions to this via independent aggregating hubs are now being discredited as the early movers fail to generate revenue. The various alternatives of Industry Sponsored Markets (ISM), Private markets, Supply chain automation and others have their own problems particularly in the areas of content management, scalability and privacy. Almost all the thinking around this has been in terms of straight line value chains, or one to many aggregation dominated by big business. The smaller players and Small to Medium Enterprises (SME) have largely been ignored. It is now being realized that successful internet B2B systems are going to have to reflect the constantly shifting web of interconnections that characterizes business trade. This document examines some of the current problems in B2B systems and explores ways in which a P2P approach might solve them. This is summarized in a brief proposal for a business P2P system that allows trade to happen directly between partners rather than via central hub. srt This is a file that has a .srt extension and contains subtitles for a movie. These files are used to show subtitles in movies but you have to make sure that you have a player that supports them. The BSPlayer does a good job for windows users. centropy One of the many 'release groups' who are responsible for many new movie releases. winzip Popular file compression program nrg This is a file type that Nero uses for it's ISO format. When you get a program with this extension you should use nero to burn the image to a CD or DVD. Seeder On the BitTorrent network, someone who has the entire archive that is being offered is called a seed. A seeder can refer to any seed for that archive, but often refers more directly to a user who purposely joins a torrent even though the user already has a complete archive - for the purpose of sharing of course! LAN Acronym for Local Area Network, and is any network that is connected within a confined space, usually separate from the internet but may have a portal to the internet. VBR VBR is an acronym for Variable Bitrate. Normally an MP3 will be encoded at a certain bitrate which determines the quality of the audio after the encoding. To preserve as much quality as possible while keeping the file size as small as possible, a user will encode the MP3 at a variable bitrate where the bitrate changes on the fly according to the needs of the encoder. If a tune has a few seconds of sound that will not benefit from encoding at the higher bitrate, it will automatically fall back and encode it at a smaller bitrate that will help conserve file size. Winamp One of the most popular audio media players around. RPG An acronym for Role Playing Game, a type of game along the lines of the Dungeons and Dragons genre. repack A repack is a term used to describe making an archive set (usually RARs) of a file (or files) that is different from the one that the file(s) originally came in. People usually put this is their subject line when posting in the newsgroups so that others that are looking for pieces from the original archive set will not try and download the repack piece instead. Protowall Protowall is a lightweight program that runs in the background, taking up little CPU and memory, while blocking thousands of bad IP addresses. Nodezilla Nodezilla is a secured, distributed and fault tolerant routing system (aka Grid Network). Its main purpose is to serve as a link for distributed services built on top of it (like chat, efficient video multicasting streaming, File Sharing, secured file store ...). Nodezilla provides cache features; any server may create a local replica of any data object. These local replicas provide faster access and robustness to network partitions. They also reduce network congestion by localizing access traffic. It is assumed that any server in the infrastructure may crash, leak information, or become compromised, therefore to ensure data protection redundancy and cryptographic techniques are used. cbt cbt is an acronym for Computer Based Training. This is a broad category of programs that a user uses that is meant to help you learn something. FileCroc FileCroc is a peer to peer filesharing program by means of which you can share your files (video, audio, picture, etc.) in the FileCroc community. data miner A software application that monitors and/or analyzes the activities of a computer, and subsequently its user, of the purpose of collecting information that typically will be used for marketing purposes. octet represents any eight bit quantity. By definition, an octet ranges in mathematical value from zero to 255. Typically an octet is also a byte, but the term octet came into existence because historically some computer systems did not represent a byte as eight bits. dvdr DVD Recordable media that is used to write information to it once. With the drop in price of DVD burners, DVDr's are quickly growing in popularity. ogm Ogg Media File, was developed by Tobias Waldogels. It is an advanced video format, which can do many things what the AVI format cannot LeecHammer LeecHammer is a program designed to work in tandem with WinMX and help eliminate leeches from your upload queue. ogg vorbis Ogg Vorbis is a completely open, patent-free, professional audio encoding and streaming technology with all the benefits of Open Source. capri Computation Analysis PRogramming Interface Daemon A process that runs in the background and performs a specified operation at predefined times or in response to certain events. giFT giFT is a collection of various software components geared towards improving the overall usability of a multitude of peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. This goal is accomplished by unifying the components such that a user of the software may choose any of the available interfaces to access any of the available networks. mdf file Menu definition file xpat is based on the search engine previously marketed by Open Text as PAT and OT5(TM). The University of Michigan has licensed the code in order to undertake distribution and support, as well as to add functionality. grabit GrabIt All done without the need of (nested)frames and allways providing you with the latest content from other websites. linksys manufactures a type of networking device officially named the "Instant Broadband mov A .mov file is, of course, a movie file. A .qt file is (for historical reasons) an alternate extension for movie files (.qt's and .mov's are identical). OpenMX the name of the core backend server technology and the downloadable client technology that makes Sponster possible. vdsl Very high data rate Digital Subscriber Line - Modem for twisted-pair access operating at data rates from 12.9 to 52.8 Mbps with corresponding maximum reach ranging from 4500 feet to 1000 feet of 24 gauge twisted pair. mftp multisource file transmission protocol MFTP is designed to spread files in the fastest possible way between many interested users. MFTP will download the same file from several sources concurrently, allowing for a combined higher speed. Slot Slot refers to a position an individual is in when uploading or downloading. It is identical to a queue. MXmonitor MXmonitor is a anti-leech tool designed to accompany WinMX. noob Although originally designed to describe "newbies" to the gaming scene, this is now a general term to describe anyone who is consistent with being or acting stupid. retspan The makers of peerfactor. A program that rewards those that use it. PeerFactor PeerFactor is a French company who produce proprietary P2P software to aid both business and individuals distribute large files. The software is based on the principles of BitTorrent and employs technology from the BitTorrent client uTorrent to make the software light and CPU friendly. PeerFactor was previously part of the French anti-piracy group RetSpan. During this time, PeerFactor paid file sharers to share files which "trapped" internet users who tried to download copyrighted contents from P2P networks without authorization. When they try to open a PeerFactor file they have downloaded (by thinking that it is a real pirated file), they will be automatically redirected to an authorized web site, on which they will be able to get a complete and legal version of the product they wanted to steal. In other words, it is a P against P. PeerFactor is no longer part of RetSpan and claim to have dropped all previous anti-P2P activities to focus on producing their own P2P software. wifi a way of transmitting information in wave form that is reasonably fast and is often used for notebooks. FLAC FLAC stands for Free Lossless Audio Codec. Grossly oversimplified, FLAC is similar to MP3, but lossless, meaning that audio is compressed in FLAC without any loss in quality. This is similar to how Zip works, except with FLAC you will get much better compression because it is designed specifically for audio, and you can play back compressed FLAC files in your favorite player (or your car or home stereo, see links to the right for supported devices) just like you would an MP3 file. More Info : http://flac.sourceforge.net/index.html kdrive Kdrive is a secure global virtual hard drive. Anyone can create a folder on the Kdrive. You can use Kdrive to chat with and share files with friends, business associates, or the general public. Kdrive is built from the beginning with security and privacy in mind. All communications and file transfer is authenticated and encrypted. This means you know who you are talking to and no one else can listen in on your conversation. encryption Computer encryption is based on the science of cryptography, which has been used throughout history. Before the digital age, the biggest users of cryptography were governments, particularly for military purposes. The existence of coded messages has been verified as far back as the Roman Empire. But most forms of cryptography in use these days rely on computers, simply because a human-based code is too easy for a computer to crack. Most computer encryption systems belong in one of two categories: Symmetric-key encryption Public-key encryption retspan a system which makes it possible to identify the users of pirate music on Internet. swarm a software package for multi-agent simulation of complex systems, originally developed at the Santa Fe Institute. Source http://www.santafe.edu/ Swarm is intended to be a useful tool for researchers in a variety of disciplines. The basic architecture of Swarm is the simulation of collections of concurrently interacting agents: with this architecture, we can implement a large variety of agent based models. hash codes A value returned by a hash function. A hash code can be used as an index into a random-access data structure, providing an efficient mapping between an object and its location. Used by classes such as HashMap. ntx The Neutralized-Transport Experiment, or NTX, will address many key scientific issues of final focus and neutralized transport in a fusion chamber. Numerical simulations indicate that the focal spot of a beam on a fusion target is sensitive to aberrations in the final magnetic lenses, the velocity spread within a beam, charge-neutralization processes in the chamber, and in particular, the beam perveance, loosely defined as the ratio of the edge potential of a beam to its kinetic energy. In NTX, a low-voltage and low-current beam with an adjustable perveance will be used to test final-focus optics and charge neutralization physics, providing the first experimental validation of the computer codes and significantly enhancing the science base for later final-focus designs. The parameters of the experiment are chosen to ensure that physics observed on NTX will model a full-scale transport system as accurately as possible. dv codec a software codec for DV video, the encoding format used by most digital camcorders, typically those that support the IEEE 1394 (a.k.a. FireWire or i.Link) interface. supernode to group together columns with the same nonzero structure, so they can be treated as a dense matrix for storage and computation. mds file A MDS file is a small meta file that contains description information about the associated ISO. It is not an ISO file nor can a MDS file be converted into a ISO. You must have the ISO; however, you can usually have an ISO without a MDS. So, no need to convert, just play the ISO. nzb Acronym for newzbin. Since newzBin index pretty much every file on Usenet, and maintain a record of them for around 20 days, we have the ability to generate a short summary file containing all the information a newsreader requires to download any given file, or set of files. The usefulness of these files depends on you having a client which can read them. At the moment, we know of the following clients which have support (and which version added it) client client, guest -- ((computer science) any computer that is hooked up to a computer network) nzb file the ability to generate a short summary file containing all the information a newsreader requires to download any given file, or set of files. mp4 MPEG-4 Structured Audio is the collective name for a set of tools which allow powerful and flexible description of sound in a variety of ways. Tools based on the MPEG-4 standard will be the future platform for computer music, audio for gaming, streaming Internet radio, and other multimedia applications. MPEG-4 Structured Audio and AudioBIFS are free standards created through the open standardization process and released into the public domain. They are completely free for anyone to use. Swarming Swarming is similar to multi-source downloads in that various sources for the same file are grouped together. In the case of swarming, small chunks of the file are simultaneously downloaded from these different hosts and re-assembled to form a whole file. Because swarming allows BearShare to download from multiple hosts at the same time it can be very fast. Open Source Open source software, by definition, means that the source code is freely available, the source code may be used, copied, extended, and redistributed with or without modifications, and may be offered either with or without a fee. Where a fee is charged it is most commonly charged for warranties, support, or for accepting indemnity or liability obligations to your customers. Where a fee is charged you cannot charge for the original source code. asf ASF files are basically the same as WMV/WMA files, but with different MIME types. The MIME type for a WMV file is video/x-ms-wmv, and for WMA it is audio/x-ms-wma. The MIME type for ASF is video/x-ms-asf. The basic internal structure of the files are identical. Shareware Software which is usually resticted, allowing full use for a trial period, and/or requiring a fee to 'unlock' some of it's features. Freeware Software which is free to use. This type of software has complete functionality at no cost to the user. peer to peer Peer-to-peer is a networking term describing the connecting of a computer on the network to another computer on the network. LOMAC LOMAC uses Low Water-Mark Mandatory Access Control to protect the integrity of processes and data from viruses, trojan horses, malicious remote users, and compromised network server daemons. Mnet Mnet is a distributed file store. A distributed file store is a shared virtual space into which you can put, and from which you can get, files. Mnet is also an emergent network. An emergent network is one in which the important features of the network result from the interactions of nodes operated by autonomous people or organizations who do not explicitly coordinate with one another. QuickMX QuickMX main features: allows unlimited find-sources, do more efficient auto-find-sources for broadband connections, resulting in faster sources finding, and threfore - faster downloads! xMule xMule is an easy to use multi-platform synchronizing fork of the popular eMule client. Based upon the wxWindows library and GNU C++, xMule aims to support the Linux, *BSD, and MacOS X operating systems DietK DietK is an independent program that strips the official Kazaa client of adware, while adding functionality. It does nothing to change the actual program of Kazaa, just the third party software that accompanies it. Many prefer using this program along with Kazaa Lite. appleJuice A program/network that uses a credit system. To download a file one must have enough credits from uploading. This is enforced in an attempt to eliminate leechers from the network. wsx This file contains a list of open-nap servers that WinMX can use to load into its OpenNap support section. BadBlue A server program that runs on any PC which incorporates powerful file-sharing capabilities. Allows users to connect to the PC and browse through tightly controlled directories. Has search capabilities. seed This term usually refers to a user who is sharing a complete archive on the BitTorrent network. A seed is any user that has 100% of the archive meaning that every person connected to a seed is guaranteed access to an essential part (one not available through any other user.) DVD Rip A DVD Rip is a digitally copied DVD. From there it is either left in its original VOB format or encoded to a DivX format. m3u M3U is a media queue format, also generally known to humans as a playlist. It is the default playlist save format of WinAMP and most other media programs. It allows multiple files to be queued in a program in a specific format. NullSoft Small programming division of AOL, led by Justin Frankle. Most notable contributions to the P2P world include Gnutella and WinAmp EnCase Encase is the software used by many law enforcement agencies to scan the hard drive of computers that have been seized so evidence may be extracted for the case against the person or company the computer was seized from. GUI Acronym for Graphical User Interface. This is the visual part of the program, where you enter information, read information and so on. Ultra Peer An ultra peer is just another name for a Super Peer or Supernode. Like its brethern, an Ultra Peer is a temporary indexing server found on decentralized network. FrontCode FrontCode Technologies is the development team behind WinMX. Based in Ontario, Canada, FrontCode is headed by President Kevin Hearn wma Windows Media Audio (WMA). This is the proprietary music format developed by Microsoft, complete with Digital Rights Management . DeCSS A program initially made for Linux machines that broke the "CSS" or Content Scrabling System encryption on DVDs. m2v An extension of the MPEG-2 video only file. These are extremely high quality video files that have typically used for encoding Music Videos. MIDI file Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI files are the predecessors of the MP3. They are used to store song information in a format readable by most software and hardware musical devices. The standardization of a MIDI file enables it to be created in one musical program and then loaded and edited in a completely different one. Used as a sampler for music, MIDI fies are created through instrument sequence, and do not record voice. Azureus Azureus is a java bittorrent client. It provides a quite full bittorrent protocol implementation using java language. ShareReactor Popular file verification site for the eDonkey2000 network. Linux Linux is a free Unix-type operating system originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world. Developed under the GNU General Public License , the source code for Linux is freely available to everyone. Kademlia KADEMLIA is a novel routing algorithm for peer-to-peer networks based on the XOR metric. The KADEMLIA project is a research effort to implement a full-featured peer-to-peer system based on the XOR metric routing. Topics of interest are efficient data storage and query; anonimity; network, content and user security and authentication. Currently, we are working on a Java implementation of KADEMLIA. Cam Cam refers to the type of medium used to record a movie for release on the Internet. Typically, an individual brings a "cam" recorder into the theater and records the movie in this fashion. Not surprisingly, the quality is only marginal. Super Peer A super peer is just another name for a Super Node or Ultra Peer. SRT files SRT files are the subtitles that usually accompany a DivX movie. Distributed Hash A technology that can be used to develop a common infrastructure for distributed or peer-to-peer applications, including storage and multicasting. TAR TAR is a UNIX command that allows you to create a single archive file containing many files. Such archiving allows you to maintain directory relationships and facilitates transferring complex programs with many separate but integrated parts that must have their relationships preserved. TAR has a plethora of options that allow you to do archiving and unpacking in many ways. Gopher A gopher system is a simple menu based interface that can connect you to text files, downloadable binary files, file searches, telnet connections, or to another menu. The selections can be local or can link to any other gopher, web, telnet, or ftp site around the world. In a gopher system, you type a number or click on an icon to select the menu item you want. The first gopher was developed at the University of Minnesota, and you can use their gopher to link gophers from all over the World. MFC The Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC) is an "application framework" for programming in Microsoft Windows. Written in C++, MFC provides much of the code necessary for managing windows, menus, and dialog boxes; performing basic input/output; storing collections of data objects; and so on. All you need to do is add your application-specific code into this framework QuickPar QuickPar is a utility for creating Parity Volumes using the Reed Solomon algorithm wav A Wave file is an audio file format, created by Microsoft, that has become a standard PC audio file format for everything from system and game sounds to CD-quality audio. A Wave file is identified by a file name extension of WAV (.wav). Used primarily in PCs, the Wave file format has been accepted as a viable interchange medium for other computer platforms, such as Macintosh. This allows content developers to freely move audio files between platforms for processing, for example. Bottler Bottler is an application that creates an interface to IRC offer bots.If you know where to look, there are hundreds of bots offering hundreds of files. The problem is that finding those files involves hanging out in IRC channels and watching reams of text stream pass. Bottler does all the watching for you by querying bots in IRC channels and then listening in those channels for when new bots arrive. Bottler will present the list of files currently being offered and will let you download them using inbuilt DCC transfer technology SHA 1 This Standard specifies a Secure Hash Algorithm, SHA-1, for computing a condensed representation of a message or a data file. mov A video file that can be played using the Quicktime video player made by Apple. dvl Files that have this sequence of letters in them usually are xvid video files that have AC3 encoded audio. A typical problem occuring now is the absence of sound for people using these files. Luckily, it is relatively easy to fix this problem by visiting the link below and getting the AC3 codec. UserHash A method of uniquely identifying your emule client on the eDonkey2000 network. This is then used to set up a sort of credit system where users who upload to someone are given priority in that persons queues for downloading. Base64 A method of encoding a binary file into an ascii text file for transfer over systems that only accept text such as the newsgroups. This is a member in a family that includes UUencoding/UUdecoding, and Yenc. Bots Bots are "robots" that occupy IRC chat channels for security purposes. Typically, the guard chat channels from flooding, take-over, and other malicious acts when channel operators are not available. PAR2 Par 2.0 specification is an attempt to replace the par 1.0 that has commonly been used. Here is a list of the improvements included in version 2.0: Par Files They are the answer to the problem of missing files. [PAR]ity files are used to reconstruct files that are missing from the archive. For example, if you have downloaded an archive that was split into 47 RAR files but one of them is missing, you could simply download a PAR file for that archive. Once you have the PAR file, you can use SmartPAR to reconstruct the missing file. SUB A file that is included in an archive that is created by CloneCD. It is the Sub Channel Data, the sub channel data of all tracks of the CD. CCD The cue file for a CloneCD archive. There are normally three files that comprise an entire CloneCD archive, they are .iso, .ccd, and .sub. IMG Usually refers to a particular format of ISO file that is made with CloneCD and has an .img extension. The set of files that CloneCD creates for an ISO are a .img, a .ccd cue file, and a .sub file. Magnet Link A magnet link enabling seamless integration between websites and locally-running utilities such as P2P software. A user, by clicking on the magnet link on a website, will initiate the download of that particular file that the magnet link refers. The reference is usually done by hash coding ensuring that you are downloading the real file and not a fake. TigerTree A type of cryptographic hash, TigerTree is calculated by applying the Tiger hash to 1024-byte blocks of a stream, then combining the interim values through a binary hash tree. SOCKS A protocol for handling TCP traffic through a proxy server. It can be used with virtually any TCP application, including Web browsers and FTP clients. It provides a simple firewall because it checks incoming and outgoing packets and hides the IP addresses of client applications Slashdot Effect Refers to the phenomenon of a server being overloaded due to the short time massive amounts of hits a site receives by being written about on a site like slashdot.org. A problem that is being solved by innovative new programs like BitTorrent which by their very nature can ease the burden on a server during periods. Query A query is a message that seeks to know the answer to a known question. In the File-Sharing world, queries are most often seen as a search of a network for a particular file. FSRaid A program that will work with par files to re-construct missing sections of an archive. This is a common tool for users of the newsgroups who download archives split up into many pieces with PAR files in case any are missing/corrupt. MP2P The network that Piolet and Blubster connect to is technically called the MP2P network.
  3. Access to private torrent sites can only usually be achieved by obtaining a personal invitation from someone who is already a member. However, there are ways to short-circuit the process, such as buying an invite from a seller or doing a trade. Do these routes amount to a public service, or do traders and sellers undermine tracker security to the detriment of all? privateVery generally there are three types of torrent site, each requiring a different level of commitment from the user. First there are the no-signup required types that give free access to all of their features with no commitment required by the end user. Next there are the free to access sites that also offer additional features if the user is prepared to sign up with an email address. Finally we have private torrent sites that have all of their features behind a subscription wall. Gaining access to this latter category can vary from a fairly simple process to an almost impossible one. Some private sites let new members sign up via an ordinary page with no additional restrictions but many operate an invite-only regime and are very strict about who should obtain them. The first hurdle, trading and cash Herein lies the problem. If a user wants access to BestTrackerInTheWorld.com he needs to have an online buddy already on the site with invites to spare – if he doesn’t then he can’t get in. However, there are ways for people to obtain invites without having any ‘real’ friends at all. Firstly, there are sites around where people in possession of invites to site X are able to trade them with people who have invites to site Y. By sharing in this fashion a user with access to a couple of sites’ invites can find himself with double or triple the amount, if he plays the game cautiously. This activity is strictly against the rules of many private trackers but that doesn’t stop those wishing to trade. Many traders build up vast collections of invites which are not only valuable in terms of the access they provide, but in a real monetary way too. And when there’s cash on the table, getting access to that all-important first invite isn’t hard at all. There are plenty of places online where people can buy an invitation to a low-end private tracker for just a few bucks. Furthermore, those with deep pockets should have no problems gaining access to even the most exclusive private trackers, providing the price is right. Trading scum dangerAt this point many admins, moderators, staffers and users of private torrent sites will be screaming at the screen. Trading and selling invites is almost always completely banned on invite-only sites and those who participate in either activity are often viewed as the lowest of the low. “These scum put our security in jeopardy,” a moderator of one site told TorrentFreak. “Any anti-piracy company can buy an invite and put the whole site at risk. We don’t want traders on the tracker and them being there undermines our work.” However, trackers do allow members who have proved themselves in some way to give out a few invitations of their own. They are supposed to do this carefully, to people they already trust and only to those who will contribute positively to the site. But how can site operators be sure that’s going to happen? “Well if they screw up and invite a trader/seller/cheater whatever, they’re gonna get their account banned aren’t they?” a staffer on another site told us. But just as an anti-piracy company might threaten a file-sharer with prosecution for his transgressions (and be completely ignored of course), invite sellers and traders don’t follow tracker rules either. Getting organized – trading and selling invites on the web One site that aims to drive a bus through the invite wall is TorrentInvites.org (TI). This site and its users give away and sell/trade invites (plus other items such as seedboxes) and its operator is only too aware that his work is unappreciated by many private trackers. “I know that trackers are calling us scumbags or whatever, because they want users to invite only REAL friends on their sites. But come on… we’re in 2013. The power of the net is HUGE and our virtual friends are (unfortunately in my opinion) in many cases more than our real friends,” he told TorrentFreak. “I find it funny that these guys who are breaking federal copyright laws are calling us scumbags, because we are breaking their (shitty in my opinion) anti-trading and anti-selling invites rules.” We asked the operator of one private tracker for his opinion of TI and while he didn’t use the word ‘scumbag’ he did get to the point in a four letter word that you rarely hear even in the movies. He also threatened to nuke anyone even slightly associated with the site. However, the admin of TI doesn’t see his operation as the natural enemy of torrent sites. Let’s be friends friends“We are just giving the chance to many thousands of users to join some good private trackers. To users who are not lucky enough to have real friends to invite them. To users who can prove in the near future that they really deserved this chance,” TI explains. While the trackers’ stance is understandable, to his credit TI does put forward what appear to be some logical arguments in support of his operation being of use to trackers. “A guy who is willing to pay for an invite is probably the kind of user who is going to donate to a tracker as well. I think it makes sense!” he says. “Another interesting example. Let’s suppose that an HDBits.org account costs $200. A guy doesn’t really need his account and he is selling it to another user. Isn’t it obvious that the new owner needs it more and will make better use of the account than the previous user? “What trackers want are good users. Why the hell will they ban this account if they find out that there was a deal involved? If [the trackers] would let each user to do whatever he likes with his account, after a while they would have the best possible user base.” Countering, the retired sysop of another tracker told us that anyone buying invites for large amounts of cash should always be viewed with suspicion as anti-piracy outfits tend to have deep pockets. That may well be, but aren’t they also just as capable of infiltrating communities, making online ‘friends’ and obtaining invites for free? “I’m sure it happens but we wanted to try to reduce the odds,” he said. “I don’t know if it worked or not, all I can say is that it seemed effective at the time. What I hated most was seeing some kid punting our invites all over the place and making good money when we were struggling to pay our server bills.” Trackers sell invites too cashWhile the sysop above clearly wasn’t prepared to step over the line and sell his own invites, there are quite a few sites who are currently doing that. Visitors to some of the larger private trackers will be aware that while the sites are advertised as full, room can apparently be made for those prepared to donate in return for an invite. However, while not always advertised as blatantly as this, other sites are indeed involved in selling their own invites. One trader who asked to remain anonymous told TorrentFreak that over the past year he has obtained an official supply of invites from almost a dozen private trackers which he sells and sends back a cut. “Some they are wanting me to sell invites only to the best users but others they do not care about it,” he explains. “I give them money and they give me invites, beyond that does not concern me.” Selling, trading or giving away – can security ever be assured? TI notes that just because an invite channel is official – whether that is via the site itself or some other sanctioned source – it doesn’t necessarily follow that the quality of new members will be high. “Just keep in mind that MANY (bad) users are getting invites in a ‘legit’ way, through tracker’s forums or official recruitment threads [on sites such as Reddit etc] and they are selling/trading these invites,” he concludes. The issue of invites is controversial and unlikely to disappear soon. Trackers obviously have an interest in having some sort of control over who gets them when their security is at stake. On the other hand, however, trackers themselves are giving invites to people that they do not personally know yet are asking their members not to follow suit. In the meantime sites like TI ignore all the rules in order to give the community what they believe it really wants. Who is right? You decide… SOURCE http://torrentfreak.com/
  4. A researcher in Russia has made more than 48 million journal articles - almost every single peer-reviewed paper every published - freely available online. And she's now refusing to shut the site down, despite a court injunction and a lawsuit from Elsevier, one of the world's biggest publishers. For those of you who aren't already using it, the site in question is Sci-Hub, and it's sort of like a Pirate Bay of the science world. It was established in 2011 by neuroscientist Alexandra Elbakyan, who was frustrated that she couldn't afford to access the articles needed for her research, and it's since gone viral, with hundreds of thousands of papers being downloaded daily. But at the end of last year, the site was ordered to be taken down by a New York district court - a ruling that Elbakyan has decided to fight, triggering a debate over who really owns science. "Payment of $32 is just insane when you need to skim or read tens or hundreds of these papers to do research. I obtained these papers by pirating them," Elbakyan told Torrent Freak last year. "Everyone should have access to knowledge regardless of their income or affiliation. And that’s absolutely legal." If it sounds like a modern day Robin Hood struggle, that's because it kinda is. But in this story, it's not just the poor who don't have access to scientific papers - journal subscriptions have become so expensive that leading universities such as Harvard and Cornell have admitted they can no longer afford them. Researchers have also taken a stand - with 15,000 scientists vowing to boycott publisher Elsevier in part for its excessive paywall fees. Don't get us wrong, journal publishers have also done a whole lot of good - they've encouraged better research thanks to peer review, and before the Internet, they were crucial to the dissemination of knowledge. But in recent years, more and more people are beginning to question whether they're still helping the progress of science. In fact, in some cases, the 'publish or perish' mentality is creating more problems than solutions, with a growing number of predatory publishers now charging researchers to have their work published - often without any proper peer review process or even editing. "They feel pressured to do this," Elbakyan wrote in an open letter to the New York judge last year. "If a researcher wants to be recognised, make a career - he or she needs to have publications in such journals." That's where Sci-Hub comes into the picture. The site works in two stages. First of all when you search for a paper, Sci-Hub tries to immediately download it from fellow pirate database LibGen. If that doesn't work, Sci-Hub is able to bypass journal paywalls thanks to a range of access keys that have been donated by anonymous academics (thank you, science spies). This means that Sci-Hub can instantly access any paper published by the big guys, including JSTOR, Springer, Sage, and Elsevier, and deliver it to you for free within seconds. The site then automatically sends a copy of that paper to LibGen, to help share the love. It's an ingenious system, as Simon Oxenham explains for Big Think: "In one fell swoop, a network has been created that likely has a greater level of access to science than any individual university, or even government for that matter, anywhere in the world. Sci-Hub represents the sum of countless different universities' institutional access - literally a world of knowledge." That's all well and good for us users, but understandably, the big publishers are pissed off. Last year, a New York court delivered an injunction against Sci-Hub, making its domain unavailable (something Elbakyan dodged by switching to a new location), and the site is also being sued by Elsevier for "irreparable harm" - a case that experts are predicting will win Elsevier around $750 to $150,000 for each pirated article. Even at the lowest estimations, that would quickly add up to millions in damages. But Elbakyan is not only standing her ground, she's come out swinging, claiming that it's Elsevier that have the illegal business model. "I think Elsevier’s business model is itself illegal," she told Torrent Freak, referring to article 27 of the UN Declaration of Human Rights, which states that "everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits". She also explains that the academic publishing situation is different to the music or film industry, where pirating is ripping off creators. "All papers on their website are written by researchers, and researchers do not receive money from what Elsevier collects. That is very different from the music or movie industry, where creators receive money from each copy sold," she said. Elbakyan hopes that the lawsuit will set a precedent, and make it very clear to the scientific world either way who owns their ideas. "If Elsevier manages to shut down our projects or force them into the darknet, that will demonstrate an important idea: that the public does not have the right to knowledge," she said. "We have to win over Elsevier and other publishers and show that what these commercial companies are doing is fundamentally wrong." To be fair, Elbakyan is somewhat protected by the fact that she's in Russia and doesn't have any US assets, so even if Elsevier wins their lawsuit, it's going to be pretty hard for them to get the money. Still, it's a bold move, and we're pretty interested to see how this fight turns out - because if there's one thing the world needs more of, it's scientific knowledge. In the meantime, Sci-Hub is still up and accessible for anyone who wants to use it, and Elbakyan has no plans to change that anytime soon.

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